Scientific Literature



Background and Objectives: Platelet concentrates for surgical use (Platelet-Rich Plasma PRP or Platelet-rich fibrin PRF) are surgical adjuvants to improve healing and promote tissue regeneration. L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin) is one of the 4 families of platelet concentrates for surgical use and is widely used in oral and maxillofacial regenerative therapies. The objective of this second article was to evaluate the impact of the centrifuge characteristics (vibration intensity) on the cell and fibrin architecture of a L-PRF clot and membrane.


Materials and Methods: Four different commercially available centrifuges were used to produce L-PRF, following the original L-PRF production method widely described in the literature (glass-coated plastic tubes, 400g force, 12 minutes). The tested systems were the original L-PRF centrifuge (Intra-Spin, Intra-Lock, the only CE and FDA cleared system for the preparation of L-PRF) and 3 other laboratory centrifuges (not CE/FDA cleared for L- PRF): A-PRF 12 (Advanced PRF, Process), LW - UPD8 (LW Scientific) and Salvin 1310 (Salvin Dental). All clots and membranes were collected into a sterile adequate surgical box (Xpressionkit). The exact macroscopic (weights, sizes) and microscopic (photonic and scanning electron microscopy SEM) characteristics and the cell composition of the L-PRF clots and membranes produced with these 4 different machines with 4 different vibration intensity levels were evaluated.


Results: Intra-Spin showed the lowest temperature of the tubes. A-PRF and Salvin were both associated with a significant increase of temperature in the tube. Intra-Spin produced by far the heaviest clot and quantity of exudate among the 4 techniques. For clot and membrane length and width, Intra-Spin and Salvin presented similar sizes. A-PRF and LW produced much lighter, shorter and narrower clots and membranes than the 2 other centrifuges. Light microscopy analysis showed relatively similar features for all L-PRF types (concentration of cell bodies in the first half of the fibrin mesh). However, SEM illustrated considerable differences between samples. The original Intra-Spin L-PRF showed a strongly polymerized thick fibrin matrix and all cells appeared alive with a normal shape, including the textured surface aspect of activated lymphocytes. The A-PRF, Salvin and LW PRF-like membranes presented a lightly polymerized slim fibrin gel and all the visible cell bodies appeared destroyed (squashed or shrunk).


Discussion and Conclusion: This study illustrated that the centrifuge characteristics (particularly the vibrations) are directly impacting the architecture and cell content of a L- PRF clot. The original L-PRF clot (Intra-Spin) used and validated since years presented very specific characteristics, which appeared distorted when using centrifuges with a higher vibration level. A-PRF, LW and Salvin centrifuges produced PRF-like materials with a damaged and almost destroyed cell population through the standard 400g protocol developed initially for the L-PRF, and it is therefore impossible to classify these products in the L-PRF family. A-PRF, LW and Salvin centrifuges are not suitable for the production of original L-PRF clots and membranes at 400g. Further research would be interesting to evaluate how modifications of the protocol alone (for example reduction of the g forces) may influence the biological signature of the L-PRF clots and membranes, independently from the characteristics of the centrifuge.


Keywords: Blood platelets, growth factors, leukocytes, platelet-rich plasma, regenerative medicine, wound healing

The impact of the centrifuge characteristics and centrifugation protocols on the cells, growth factors and fibrin architecture of a Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) clot and membrane. Part 2: macroscopic, photonic microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of 4 kinds of L-PRF clots and membranes.



POSEIDO, Volume 2, Issue 2, June 2014, Pages 141-54


Medicine: 4

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